Introduction. In the last few chapters we followed the differentiation of roles within the family itself. The end-product in the 1840's and 1850's was a more specialized family structure. As part of this process, several of the family's functions began to slip away. To take over these old functions, complementary organizations began to appear. In particular, we witnessed the commencement of a greater interest in formal education for factory children. In this chapter and the next we shall trace the evolution of several other organizations which were geared closely to the functions of the family economy between 1770 and 1840-the trade union, the friendly society, the savings bank, the loan society, etc.