T he administration of the Sudan was established during the Wingate era. Some of the central government departments had existed prior to the reconquest, within the Egyptian army, and were later transferred to the Sudan government. Others were established when their services were required and the meagre Sudan budget could support them. Provincial administration also evolved gradually. From 1899 to 1916 the number of provinces increased from eight to fifteen through the extension of territory and the subdivision of existing provinces. At the top of the administrative hierarchy was the governor-general followed by the inspector-general. The Sudan agent in Cairo, who was also head of intelligence, served as a liaison between the Sudan and Egypt and was selected from Wingate’s confidants. At the head of the central administration in Khartoum were the financial, legal and civil secretaries, followed by the directors of the other departments and the provincial governors. The following account will be limited to a brief survey of the administrative structure of some of the departments. Only those whose duties had a direct bearing on administrative policy will be more fully discussed in later chapters.1