The professional literature on land-locked states has increased substantially in the past two decades. There is now a considerable body of writings by people in many countries around the world reporting on, inquiring into or carefully analysing most aspects of land-lockedness from various disciplinai and national viewpoints. In addition, there is a roughly equally large body of material related to land-lockedness produced by the United Nations and its organs and affiliates; by other intergovernmental organisations, including many regional and subregional groups; and by private consultants and consulting firms, chiefly in the fields of economics and engineering.1