This chapter presents the basic patterns in the development of the national question in Spain. It argues what is a quite exceptional process in Europe over the last two centuries. The development of various national and regional identities in Spain has been a long paradoxical process spanning at least the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: while the Spanish state is one of very few European states that has remained territorially intact throughout this period, it has undergone an acute national and identity conflict. It begin with an analysis of the national question in Spain, in which it examine the different stages of development which are contained in the period analysed. As the liberal revolution developed, the national identity gradually began to spread beyond the minority elites by means of a deficient diffusion, mixing new and old components. In Catalonia, the regionalist phase had paved the way for nationalism by popularizing the country's language, literature, ethnicity and history.