This chapter reviews the recent evolution of Galicia as a region with very high levels of autonomy. Galicia's contemporary history presents two main elements: a low level of social and economic development and the long process of consolidation that Galician nationalist's forces have had to follow to achieve significant levels of political organization and electoral results from the beginning of the twentieth century to the 1990s. A convulsive motion of censure forced the end of the Alianza Popular (AP) government. A three-party coalition took over in government: Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol (PSOE), and for the first time in Galician history, two moderate nationalist parties - the Coalicion Galega and the Partido Nationalista Galego. Galicia presents a strong differential linguistic ethnicity, which is reinforced by a multiple cultural particularities such as customs, traditions, family relations and common strategies of production, due to the stunted social and economic development of the region.