Because these stages or, perhaps more accurately, contrasting attitudes by students to authority have implications for the approach to teaching and the types of assessment used, they will be described in more detail below. Whenever it is relevant, each of Perry's stages will be linked to typical behaviours of university and college students as observed by the authors or as described in the literature on higher education. For example, Whiteley and Yokota (1987) related Perry's stages to the development of character among firstyear university students in an American college.