If, on the other hand, the prime purpose is to measure achievement, the assessment scheme will be designed to measure the performance of students at a particular point, whether it be at some stage during their studies or at the end of a program leading to the award of a degree. It is important to recognize, however, that a high level of achievement in a particular examination does not necessarily indicate that a student has learned a lot from the course which is being examined - that particular student may have already possessed the knowledge or skills prior to enrolling in the course.