In addition to this, Table 3.4 shows that about three-quarters of all government expenditure on education was allocated to elementary schools. Government investment in secondary and postsecondary education was neg-
Year Percentage 1960 80.9 1965 72.6 1970 76.6 1975 67.3 1980 62.2
Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
These variations of socioeconomic status and gender in educational demands revealed an unequal distribution of educational opportunities. Although the overall percentage of female students has increased, the differences in the percentage of females to males have widened the higher the level of education, as shown in Table 3.5. Therefore, government innovations aimed toward expanded educational opportunities have affected fewer females than males. lO
Besides gender differences in the distribution of educational opportunities, there was an unequal distribution between the sexes in disciplines at the college level. The majority of female students were concentrated in the liberal arts. While 27.7% of female students at college majored in education, 31.5% of male students majored in engineering. Table 3.6 shows the top five major fields that were studied by students at the college level in 1983. This uneven distribution of academic disciplines between male and female students at the college level can be attributed to the secondary school curriculum, which discriminated against female students. Whereas home economics was compulsory for female students, industry and technology were studied by male students in the secondary schools.