ABSTRACT

Concern about feminization of American culture can be seen in such articles as Earl Barnes, "The Feminizing of Culture," Atlantic Monthly 109 (June 1912): 770-76; G. Stanley Hall, "Femininization in School and Home," The World's Work 16 (May 1908): 1037-44; Luther Gulick, "The Alleged Effemination of Our American Boys," American Physical Education Review 10 (September 1905): 216-19; Maximilian Grozzman, "Femalization of Education," Child-Study Monthly 2 (June 1896): 126-33; Rabbi Soloman Schindler, "Flaw in Our Public School System: The Preponderance of Female Teachers," Arena 6 (June 1892): 59-63; and Alfred A. Cleveland, "The Predominance of Female Teachers," Pedagogical Seminary 12 (September 19051: 289-303. John Higham discusses the countertrend toward "masculinization" in "The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890s," in Writing American History: Essays in Modern Scholarship, ed. John Higham (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970). 1-35. 15. Annual Report of the Superintendent to the Los Angeles Board of Education, Los Angeles Board of Education Reports, 1902-03, 13l. 16. E. P. Clark, "How Shall We Keep the Boy in School? Pt. 2," The Sierra Educational Review 6 (June 1910): 29. The journal in which this article appeared was the official organ of the California Teachers Association. In the article, Clark quoted from The World's Work to argue that "the preponderance of girls among the graduates" was one proof of the failure of the American high school. 17. Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thompson, The Evolution of Sex (London: W. Scott, 18891. See, too, William K. Brooks, "The Condition of Woman from a Zoological Point of View," Popular Science Monthly 15 (June 1879): 143-55 and 347-56, and "Woman from the Standpoint of a Naturalist," The Forum 22 (November 18961: 286-96.