This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. This book sets out to understand better teachers' work as the peoples move into a new century, framed by major changes in the global political economy. It attempts to lay the theoretical groundwork and broad framework for how the peoples might approach such a study. The book makes a number of broad comments on the changing mandate, capacity and governance of education systems in Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development (OECD) countries after a decade or more of restructuring within and across nations. It explores the consequences of the reworking of state-economy-civil society relations for teachers and their class assets. Finally, the book suggests that the reconceptualisation of professionalism as individual entrepreneurship and managerialism threatens to create new fissures between teachers and to fragment them as an occupational category.