This chapter outlines theoretical frameworks for analysing teachers' struggles that examines settlements, crisis and transformation, and in which social settlements are viewed as being marked by continuity and discontinuity, and difference across space, place and time. In particular, it drew upon the work of the regulation theorists who focused attention on the complex and dynamic interrelation between forms of economic development, nationally specific institutional structures and social relationships. Their approach is helpful in charting the particular struggles waged between teachers and the state in particular places, at particular times and under particular conditions. These theoretical frameworks will be used in the following two parts to map the changing nature of teachers' work within and across settlements. Finally, the chapter addresses the question of how far labour process theory can provide sufficient analytic purchase over understanding the changing nature of teachers' work in different social formations and across social settlements.