COMMENT: light rays enter the eye through the cornea, pass through the pupil and are refracted through the aqueous humour onto the lens, which then focuses the rays through the vitreous humour onto the retina at the back of the eyeball. Impulses from the retina pass along the optic nerve to the brain

o eye bank noun place where parts of eyes given by donors can be kept for use in grafts o eyebath noun small dish into which a solution can be put for bathing the eye o eyebrow noun arch of skin with a line of hair above the eye; he raised his eyebrows = he looked surprised o eyeglasses noun us glasses or spectacles o eyelash noun small hair which grows out from the edge of the eyelid o eyelid or blepharon or palpebra noun piece of skin which covers the eye (NOTE: for

terms referring to the eyelids, see words beginning with blepharo-) o eyesight noun being able to see; he has

got very good eyesight; failing eyesight is common in old people o eyestrain or asthenopia noun tiredness in the muscles of the eye, with a headache, caused by reading in bad light, watching television, working on a computer screen, etc. o eyetooth noun canine tooth, one of two pairs of pointed teeth next to the incisors (NOTE: plural is eyeteeth. For other terms referring to the eye, see words beginning with oculo-, ophth-and opt-)

Ff F 1 abbreviation for Fahrenheit 2 chemical symbol for fluorine face 1 noun front part of the head, where the eyes, nose and mouth are placed; don't forget to wash the patient's faCtI; face delivery = birth where the baby's face appears first; (in cosmetic surgery) face lift or face-lifting operation = surgical operation to remove wrinkles on the face and neck; she's gone into hospital for a face lift; face mask = (i) rubber mask that fits over the patient's nose and mouth and is used to administer an anaesthetic; (ii) piece of gauze which fits over the mouth and nose to prevent droplet infection; face presentation = position of a baby in the womb where the face will appear first at birth 2 verb to have your face towards or to look towards; please face the screen; the hospital faCtls east

COMMENT: the fourteen bones which make up the face are: two maxillae forming the upper jaw; two nasal bones forming the top part of the nose; two lacrimal bones on the inside of the orbit near the nose; two zygomatic or malar bones forming the sides of the cheeks; two palatine bones forming the back part of the top of the mouth; two nasal conchae or turbinate bones which form the sides of the nasal cavity; the mandible or lower jaw; and the vomer in the centre of the nasal septum

facet noun flat surface on a bone; facet syndrome = condition where a joint in the vertebrae becomes dislocated facial adjective referring to the face; the psychiatrist examined the patient's facial expression; facial bones = the fourteen bones which form the face; facial artery = artery

which branches off the external carotid into the face and mouth; facial nerve = seventh cranial nerve, which governs the muscles of the face, the taste buds on the front of the tongue, and the salivary and lacrimal glands; facial paralysis or facial palsy = BELL'S PALSY; facial vein = vein which drains down the side of the face into the internal jugular vein; deep facial vein = small vein which drains from behind the cheek into the facial vein

-facient prefix which makes; abortifacient = drug or instrument which produces an abortion

fades noun facial appearance of a patient, used as a guide to diagnosis

facilitate verb to help or to make something easy • facilitation noun act where several slight stimuli help a neurone to be activated • facilities p l u r a l noun equipment or counselling or rooms which can be used to do something; provision of aftercare facilities

fact noun something which is real and true; i t is a fact that the disease is rarely f a t a l ; t e l l me a l l the facts o f your son's illness so that I can decide what to do; the facts of life = description of how sexual intercourse is performed and how conception takes place, given to children

factor noun (a) something which has an influence, which makes something else take place; extrinsic factor = form of vitamin B 1 2 ; growth factor = chemical substance produced in one part of the body which encourages the growth of a type of cell (such as red blood cells); intrinsic factor = protein produced in the gastric glands which controls the absorption of extrinsic factor, and the lack of which causes pernicious anaemia (b) substance (called Factor I, Factor II, etc.) in the plasma which makes the blood coagulate when a blood vessel is injured; Factor VIII = substance in plasma which is lacking in haemophiliacs; Christmas factor or Factor IX = substance in plasma, the lack of which causes Christmas disease

faculty noun ability to do something; mental faculties = power of the mind to think or decide; a reduction i n blood supply to the b r a i n can have a lasting effect on the mental faculties

faeces p l u r a l noun stools or bowel movements, solid waste matter passed from the bowels through the anus

• faecal adjective referring to faeces; faecal matter = solid waste matter from the bowels NOTE: spelt feces, fecal especially in the USA. For other terms referring to faeces, see words beginning with stereo-

Fahrenheit noun scale of temperatures where the freezing and boiling points of water are 32° and 212°; compare CELSIUS, CENTIGRADE NOTE: used in the USA, but less common in the UK. Normally written with an F after the degree sign: 32°F (say: thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit')

fall verb not to be successful in doing something or not to succeed or not to do something which you are trying to do; the doctor f a i l e d to see the symptoms; she has f a i l e d her pharmacy exams; he f a i l e d his medical and was rejected by the police force • falling adjective weakening, becoming closer to death • failure noun not a success; the operation

to correct the bone defect was a f a i l u r e ; heart failure = situation where the heart cannot function in a satisfactory way and is unable to circulate blood normally; kidney failure = situation where a kidney does not function properly; failure to thrive = wasting disease of small children who have difficulty in absorbing nutrients or who are suffering from malnutrition

faint 1 verb to lose consciousness or to stop being conscious for a short time; she f a i n t e d when she saw the blood; i t was so hot standing i n the sun that he f a i n t e d 2 noun loss of consciousness for a short period, caused by a temporary reduction in the flow of blood to the brain; he collapsed i n a f a i n t 3 adjective not very clear or difficult to see or hear; he could detect a f a i n t improvement i n the patient's condition; there's a f a i n t smell of apples i n the u r i n e (faint - fainter - faintest) • fainting noun syncope, becoming unconscious for a short time; fainting fit or fainting spell = becoming unconscious for a short time; she often had f a i n t i n g fits when she was dieting

C O M M E N T : a fainting spell happens when the supply of blood to the brain is reduced for a short time, and this can be due to many causes, including lack of food, heat exhaustion, standing upright for a long time, and fear

fair adjective light-coloured (hair or skin); she's got f a i r h a i r ; he's dark, but his sister is f a i r • fair-haired adjective (person) with light-coloured hair • fairly adverb quite; I ' m f a i r l y certain I

have met h i m before; he has been w o r k i n g as a doctor only for a f a i r l y short time

Fairbanks' Splint noun special splint used for correcting Erb's palsy

fat man has a very thin wife; he's the fattest boy i n the class (fat - fatter - fattest) 2 noun (a) white oily substance in the body, which stores energy and protects the body against cold; body fat or adipose tissue = tissue where the cells contain fat, which replaces the normal fibrous tissue when too much food is eaten; brown fat = animal fat which can easily be converted to energy, and is believed to offset the effects of ordinary white fat; saturated fat = fat which has the largest amount of hydrogen possible; unsaturated fat = fat which does not have a large amount of hydrogen, and so can be broken down more easily (b) type of food which supplies protein and Vitamins A and D, especially that part of meat which is white or solid substances (like lard or butter) produced from animals and used for cooking or liquid substances like oil; if y o u d o n ' t like t h e f a t o n the meat, cut it off; fry the eggs i n some fat

three fatalities during the flooding • fatally a d v e r b in a way which causes death; his heart was fatally weakened by the lung disease

fatty adjective containing fat; fatty acid = acid (such as stearic acid) which is an important substance in the body; essential

fatty acid = unsaturated fatty acid which is essential for growth but which cannot be synthesized by the body and has to be obtained from the food supply; fatty degeneration = accumulation of fat in the cells of an organ (such as the liver or heart), making the organ less able to perform

fauces noun opening between the tonsils at the back of the throat, leading to the pharynx

favism noun type of inherited anaemia caused by an allergy to beans

favus noun highly contagious type of ringworm caused by a fungus which attacks the scalp

fear noun state where a person is afraid of something happening; h e h a s a m o r b i d f e a r of

features noun appearance of a person's face; he has heavy features

febricula noun low fever • febrifuge adjective & noun (drug such as aspirin) which prevents or lowers a fever • febrile adjective referring to a fever or caused by a fever; febrile disease = disease which is accompanied by fever

feeble adjective very weak; s h e is old a n d feeble; some o f the patients i n the geriatric ward are very feeble • feebleminded adjective being less than normally intelligent • feeblemindedness noun state of less than normal intelligence feed v e r b to give food (to someone or an animal); he has to be fed with a spoon; the baby has reached the stage when she can feed herself NOTE: feeds - feeding - fed - has fed • feedback noun linking of the result of an action back to the action itself; negative feedback = situation where the result represses the process which caused it; positive feedback = situation where the result stimulates the process again • feeding noun action of giving someone something to eat; feeding cup = special cup with a spout, used for feeding patients who cannot feed themselves; see a l s o B R E A S T FEEDING, B O T T L E FEEDING, INTRAVENOUS FEEDING

feel verb (a) to touch (usually with your finger); feel how soft the cushion is; when the lights went out we had to feel our way to the d o o r (b) to give a sensation when touched; t h e knife felt cold; the floor feels hard (c) to have

• feverfew noun herb, formerly used to reduce fevers, but now used to relieve migraine • feverish adjective with a fever; he f e l l

feverish and look a n a s p i r i n ; she is i n bed with a feverish c h i l l

C O M M E N T : normal oral body temperature is about 98.6°F or 37°C and rectal temperature is about 99°F or 37.2°C. A fever often makes the patient feel cold, and is accompanied by pains in the joints. Most fevers are caused by infections; infections which result in fever include cat scratch fever, dengue, malaria, meningitis, psittacosis, Q fever, rheumatic fever, Rocky mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, septicaemia, typhoid fever, typhus, and yellow fever

fibr-prefix referring to fibres or fibrous

fibre or US fiber noun (a) structure in the body shaped like a thread; collagen fibre = fibre which is the main component of fasciae, tendons and ligaments and is essential in bones and cartilage; elastic fibres or yellow fibres = fibres which can expand easily and are found in elastic cartilage, the skin and the walls of arteries and the lungs; nerve fibre = thread-like structure (axon or dendron) leading from a nerve cell and carrying nerve impulses (b) optical fibres = artificial fibres which carry light or images (c) dietary fibre = fibrous matter in food, which cannot be digested; high fibre diet = diet which contains a high percentage of cereals, nuts, fruit and vegetables

C O M M E N T : dietary fibre is found in cereals, nuts, fruit and some green vegetables. There are two types of fibre in food: insoluble fibre (in bread and cereals) which is not digested and soluble fibre (in vegetables and pulses). Foods with the highest proportion of fibre are bread, beans and dried apricots. Fibre is thought to be necessary to help digestion and avoid developing constipation, obesity and appendicitis

• fibre optics or fibreoptics noun examining internal organs using thin fibres which conduct light and images • f ibrescope noun device made of bundles of optical fibres which is passed into the body, used for examining internal organs

fibril noun very small fibre • fibrlllating adjective with fluttering of a muscle; they applied a d e f i b r i l l a t o r to correct a fibrillating heart beat • fibrillation noun fluttering of a muscle; atrial fibrillation = rapid uncoordinated fluttering of the atria of the heart, causing an irregular heartbeat; ventricular fibrillation =

serious heart condition where the ventricular muscles flutter and the heart no longer beats to pump blood

QUOTE Cardiovascular effects may include atrial arrhythmias but at 30°C there is the possibility of spontaneous ventricular fibrillation

British Journal of Nursing

fibrin noun protein produced by fibrinogen, which helps make blood coagulate; fibrin foam = white material made artificially from fibrinogen, used to prevent bleeding

COMMENT: removal of fibrin from a blood sample is called defibrination

• fibrinogen noun substance in blood plasma which produces fibrin when activated by thrombin • fibrinolysin noun plasmin, an enzyme which digests fibrin • fibrinolysis noun removal of blood clots from the system by the action of plasmin on fibrin

fibro-prefix referring to fibres • fibroadenoma noun benign tumour formed of fibrous and glandular tissue • fibroblast noun long flat cell found in connective tissue, which develops into collagen • fibrocartilage noun cartilage and fibrous tissue combined

COMMENT: fibrocartilage is found in the discs of the spine. It is elastic like cartilage and pliable like fibre

• fibrochondritis noun inflammation of the fibrocartilage • fibrocyst noun benign tumour of fibrous tissue • fibrocystic adjective referring to a fibrocyst; fibrocystic disease or cystic fibrosis = hereditary disease in which there is malfunction of the exocrine glands such as the pancreas, and in particular those which secrete mucus • fibrocyte noun cell which derives from a fibroblast and is found in connective tissue • fibroelastosis noun deformed growth of the elastic fibres, especially in the ventricles of the heart • fibroid adjective & noun like fibre; fibroid degeneration = changing of normal tissue into fibrous tissue (as in cirrhosis of the liver); a fibroid or fibroid tumour or fibromyoma or uterine fibroma = benign tumour in the muscle fibres of the uterus • fibroma noun small benign tumour formed in connective tissue • fibromuscular adjective referring to fibrous tissue and muscular tissue

muscle fibres of the uterus • fibroplasia see RETROLENTAL • fibrosa see OSTEITIS • fibrosarcoma noun malignant tumour of the connective tissue, common in the legs • fibrosis noun replacing damaged tissue by scar tissue; cystic fibrosis = FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE • fibrositis noun painful inflammation of me fibrous tissue which surrounds muscles and joints, especially the muscles of the back • fibrous adjective made of fibres or like fibre; fibrous capsule = fibrous tissue surrounding a kidney; fibrous joint = joint where fibrous tissue holds two bones together so that they cannot move (as in the bones of the skull); fibrous pericardium = outer part of the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and is attached to the main blood vessels; fibrous tissue = tissue made of collagen fibres; muscles a r e attached to bones by bands of strong fibrous tissue c a l l e d tendons

COMMENT: fibrous tissue is the strong white tissue which makes tendons and ligaments; also forms scar tissue

fibula noun long thin bone running between the ankle and the knee, the other thicker bone in the lower leg is the tibia (NOTE: plural is fibulae) • fibular adjective referring to the fibula field noun (a) area of interest; h e specializes i n the field of community m e d i c i n e ; don't see t h a t specialist w i t h your b r e a t h i n g problems - his f i e l d is obstetrics (b) field of vision = area which can be seen without moving the eye fiI-prefix like a thread • filament noun long thin structure like a thread • filamentous adjective like a thread • Filaria noun thin parasitic worm which is found especially in the lymph system, and is passed to humans by mosquitoes (NOTE: plural is Filariae)

COMMENT: infestation with Filariae in the lymph system causes elephantiasis

• filariasls noun tropical disease caused by parasitic threadworms in the lymph system, transmitted by mosquito bites • filiform adjective shaped like a thread; filiform papillae = papillae on the tongue which are shaped like threads, and have no taste buds � illustration TONGUE • filipuncture noun putting a wire into an aneurysm to cause blood clotting fill v e r b (a) to make something full; s h e w a s

filling the bottle w i t h water (b) to fill a tooth

= to put metal into a hole in a tooth after it has been drilled • filling noun (i) surgical operation carried out by a dentist to fill a hole in a tooth with amalgam; (ii) amalgam, metallic mixture put into a hole in a tooth by a dentist; I h a d t o have two fillings w h e n I went to the dentist's

film noun (a) roll of material which is put into a camera for taking photographs; I m u s t b u y a

film before I go on h o l i d a y ; do you w a n t a colour f i l m or a black a n d w h i t e one? (b) very thin layer of a substance, especially on the surface of a liquid; a film of o i l o n t h e surface of water

filter 1 noun piece of paper or cloth through which a liquid is passed to remove solid substances in it 2 v e r b to pass a liquid through a piece of paper or cloth to remove solid substances; i m p u r i t i e s a r e f i l t e r e d f r o m the blood by the kidneys • filtrate noun substance which has passed through a filter • filtration noun passing a liquid through a filter filum noun structure which is shaped like a thread; filum terminate = thin end section of the pia mater in the spinal cord fimbria noun fringe, especially the fringe of hair-like processes at the end of a Fallopian tube near the ovaries (NOTE: plural is fimbriae) final adjective last; this is your final i n j e c t i o n ; final common pathway = lower motor neurones, linked neurones which take all motor impulses from the spinal cord to a muscle fine adjective (a) healthy; h e w a s ill l a s t week, but he's f e e l i n g fine now (b) (hair, thread, etc.) which is very thin; t h e r e is a g r o w t h of fine h a i r on the back of her neck; fine sutures a r e used f o r delicate operations

finger noun one of the five parts at the end of the hand, but usually not including the thumb; he touched the switch w i t h his finger; finger-nose test = test of coordination, where the patients is asked to close his eyes, stretch out his arm and then touch his nose with his index finger NOTE: the names of the fingers are little finger, third finger or ring finger, middle finger, forefinger or index finger (and the thumb)

COMMENT: each finger is formed of three finger bones (the phalanges), but the thumb has only two

• fingernail noun hard thin growth covering the end of a finger; s h e p a i n t e d h e r

fingernails r e d

133 fingerprint flaccid • fingerprint noun mark left by a finger when you touch something; t h e p o l i c e f o u n d

fingerprints near the broken window • fingerstall noun cover for an infected finger, attached to the hand with strings fireman's lift noun way of carrying an injured person by putting him over one's shoulder firm noun (informal) group of doctors and consultants in a hospital (especially one to which a trainee doctor is attached during clinical studies) first adjective coming before everything else; first-ever stroke = stroke which a patient has for the first time in his life; first intention = healing of a clean wound where the tissue forms again rapidly and no prominent scar is left • first aid noun help given by an ordinary person to someone who is suddenly ill or hurt, given until full-scale medical treatment can be given; she r a n to t h e m a n w h o h a d b e e n knocked down and gave h i m first a i d u n t i l the ambulance arrived; first-aid kit = box with bandages and dressings kept ready to be used in an emergency; first-aid post or station = special place where injured people can be taken for immediate attention • first-aider noun person who gives first aid to someone who is suddenly ill or injured QUOTE cerebral infarction (embolic or thrombolic) accounts for about 80% of first-ever strokes

British Journal of Hospital Medicine

fish noun cold-blooded animal which swims in water, eaten for food; they l i v e o n a d i e t of

f i s h a n d r i c e (NOTE: no plural when referring to the food: you should eat some fish every week)

COMMENT: fish are high in protein, phosphorus, iodine and vitamins A and D. White fish has very little fat. Certain constituents of fish oil are thought to help prevent the accumulation of cholesterol on artery walls

fissile adjective which can split or can be split • fission noun splitting (as of the cells of bacteria) fissure noun crack or groove in the skin or tissue or an organ; anal fissure or rectal fissure or fissure in ano = crack in the mucous membrane wall of the anal canal; horizontal and oblique fissures = grooves between the lobes of the lungs � i l l u s t r a t i o n LUNGS; lateral fissure = groove along the side of each cerebral hemisphere; longitudinal fissure = groove separating the two cerebral hemispheres

fist noun hand which is tightly closed; t h e baby held the spoon i n its fist; he h i t the nurse with his fist

fistula noun passage or opening which has been made abnormally between two organs, often near the rectum or anus; anal fistula or fistula in ano = fistula which develops between the rectum and the outside of the body after an abscess near the anus; biliary fistula = opening which discharges bile on to the surface of the skin from the gall bladder, bile duct or liver; branchial fistula = cyst on the side of the neck of an embryo; vesicovaginal fistula = abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina

fit 1 a d j e c t i v e strong and physically healthy; the manager is not a fit m a n ; y o u ' l l have to get fit before the football match; she exercises every day to keep fit; the doctors decided the patient was not fit for surgery; he isn't fit enough to work = he is still too ill to work (fit - fitter - fittest) 2 noun sudden attack of a disorder, especially convulsions and epilepsy; she had a fit of coughing; he had a n epileptic

f i t ; the baby had a series o f fits 3 verb (a) to be the right size or shape; he's g r o w n so t a l l that his trousers don't fit h i m any more; these shoes don't f i t me - they're too tight (b) to attach an appliance correctly; t h e s u r g e o n s

fitted the a r t i f i c i a l h a n d to the patient's a r m or fitted the patient with a n a r t i f i c i a l h a n d (NOTE: you fit someone with an appliance) • fitness noun being healthy; h e h a d t o

pass a fitness test to j o i n the police force; being i n the football team demands a high level of physical fitness

fix v e r b (a) (i) to fasten or to attach; (ii) to treat a specimen which is permanently attached to a slide; the slide is f i x e d with a n alcohol s o l u t i o n ; fixed oils = liquid fats, especially those used as food (b) to arrange; t h e m e e t i n g has been f i x e d for next week • fixated adjective (person) with a fixation

on a parent • fixation noun (i) psychological disorder where a person does not develop beyond a certain stage; (ii) way of preserving a specimen on a slide; mother-fixation = condition where a person's development has been stopped at a stage where he remains like a child, dependent on his mother • fixative noun chemical used in the preparation of samples on slides flab noun (informal) soft fat flesh; he's d o i n g exercises to try to fight the f l a b • flabby adjective with soft flesh; s h e h a s

got flabby from sitting at her desk a l l day

flaccid adjective soft or flabby

floppy baby syndrome AMYOTONIA CONGENITA

o folliculin noun oestrone. a type of oestrogen; she is ullllergoing follkulin tnabnent o folliculitis noun inflammation of the hair follicles. especially where hair has been shaved

follow (up) verb to check on a patient who has been examined before in order to assess the progress of the disease or the results of treatment o follow-up noun check on a patient who has been examined before QUOTE length of follow-ups varied from three to 108 months. Thirteen patients were followed for less than one year, but the remainder were seen regularly for periods from one to nine years

New Zealand Medical Journal

fomentation = POULTICE fomites plural noun objects (such as bedclothes) touched by a patient with a communicable disease which can therefore pass on the disease to others

fontanelle noun soft cartilage between the bony sections of a baby's skull; anterior fontanelle = cartilage at the top of the head where the frontal bone joins the two parietals; posterior fontanelle = cartilage at the back of the head where the parietal bones join the occipital; see also BREGMA I COMMENT: the fontanelles gradually harden over a period of months and by the

age of 18 months the bones of the baby's skull are usually solid

food noun things which are eaten; this restaurant is famous for its food; do you like Chinese food? this food tastes funny; health food = food with no additives or food consisting of natural cereals. dried fruit and nuts; food allergies = allergies which are caused by food ( the commonest are oranges. eggs. tomatoes. strawberries); food canal or alimentary canal = passage from the mouth to the rectum through which food passes and is digested; food poisoning = illness caused by eating food which is contaminated with bacteria; the hospital had to deal with six cases of food poisoning; all the peopk at the party went down with food poisoning NOTE: food is usually used in the singular. but can sometimes be used in the plural

foot noun end part of the leg on which a person stands; he has got big feet; you stepped on my foot; athlete's foot = infectious skin disorder between the toes. caused by a fungus; drop foot or foot drop = being unable to keep the foot at right angles to the leg; nat foot or feet see FLAT; Madura foot see MADUROMYCOSIS; trench foot or immersion foot = condition. caused by

exposure to cold and damp. where the skin of the foot becomes red and blistered and in severe cases turns black when gangrene sets in. (The condition was common among soldiers serving in the trenches during the First World War) NOTE: plural is feet I COMMENT: the foot is formed of 26 bones: 14 phalanges in the toes. five metatarsals in the main part of the foot and seven tarsals

in the heel

foramen noun natural opening inside the body. such as the opening in a bone through which veins or nerves pass; foramen magnum = the hole at the bottom of the skull where the brain is joined to the spinal cord; intervertebral foramen = space between two vertebrae; vertebral foramen = hole in the centre of a vertebra which links with others to form the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes; foramen ovale = opening between the two parts of the heart in a fetus (NOTE: plural is foramina) I COMMENT: the foramen ovale normally closes at birth. but if it stays open the blood from the veins can mix with the blood

going to the arteries. causing cyanosis (blue baby disease)

forbid verb to tell someone not to do something; smolcing is forbidden in the cinemo; the health committee has forbidden

137 forbid Fothergill any contact with the press; she has been forbidden a l l starchy food; the doctor forbade h i m to go back to work NOTE: forbids - forbidding - forbade - has forbidden force 1 noun strength; the tree was blown down by the force of the wind; he has no force i n his r i g h t h a n d 2 verb to make someone do something; they forced h i m to l i e down on the floor; she was forced to do whatever they wanted f o r c e p s noun surgical instrument like a pair of scissors, made in different sizes and with differently shaped ends, used for holding and pulling; obstetrical forceps = type of large forceps used to hold a baby's head during childbirth fore-prefix in front • forearm noun lower part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist; forearm bones = the ulna and the radius • forebrain noun cerebrum, the front part of the brain in an embryo • forefinger noun first finger on the hand, next to the thumb • foregut noun front part of the gut in an embryo • forehead noun part of the face above the eyes fore ign adjective not belonging to your own country; he speaks several foreign languages; foreign body = piece of material which is not part of the surrounding tissue and should not be there (such as sand in a cut or dust in the eye or pin which has been swallowed); the X - r a y showed the presence of a foreign body; swallowed foreign bodies = anything (a pin or coin or button) which should not have been swallowed • foreigner noun person who comes from another country fo rens ic medic ine noun medical science concerned with finding solutions to crimes against people (such as autopsies on murdered people or taking blood samples from clothes) foresk in or p r e p u c e noun skin covering the top of the penis, which can be removed by circumcision forewaters noun fluid which comes out of the vagina at the beginning of childbirth when the amnion bursts forget verb not to remember to do something or not to remember a piece of information; old people start to forget names; she forgot to take the tablets; he forgot his appointment with the specialist NOTE: forgetting - forgot - has forgotten

• forgetful adjective (person) who often forgets things; she became very forgetful, and had to be looked after by her sister • forgetfulness noun condition where someone often forgets things; increasing

forgetfulness is a sign o f old age form 1 noun (a) shape; she has a r i n g i n the

f o r m of the letter A (b) paper with blank spaces which you have to write in; you have to

fill i n a f o r m when you a r e admitted to hospital (c) state or condition; our team was i n good f o r m and won easily; he's in good form today = he is very amusing or is doing things well; off form = not very well or slightly i l l 2 verb to make or to be the main part of; calcium is one the elements which

forms bones or bones a r e mainly formed o f c a l c i u m ; a n ulcer formed i n his duodenum; i n d i p h t h e r i a a membrane forms across the l a r y n x • formation noun action of forming something; d r i n k i n g m i l k helps the f o r m a t i o n of bones fo rma ldehyde noun strong antiseptic derived from formic acid • formalin noun solution of formaldehyde

in water used to preserve specimens formicat ion noun itching feeling where the skin feels as if it were covered with insects formula noun (a) way of indicating a chemical compound using letters and numbers (such as H 2 SO 4 ) (b) instructions on how to prepare a drug (c) US powdered milk for babies (NOTE: plural is formulae) • formulary noun book containing formulae for making drugs fornix noun arch; fornix cerebri = section of white matter in the brain between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus � i l l u s t r a t i o n B R A I N ; fornix of the vagina = space between the cervix of the uterus and the vagina (NOTE: plural is fornices) fortif ication f igures noun patterns of coloured light, seen as part of the aura before a migraine attack occurs f o s s a noun shallow hollow in a bone or the skin; cubital fossa = depression in the front of the elbow joint; glenoid fossa = socket in the shoulder joint into which the humerus fits; iliac fossa = depression on the inner side of the hip bone; pituitary fossa = hollow in the upper surface of the sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland sits; temporal fossa = depression in the side of the head, in the temporal bone above the zygomatic arch (NOTE: plural is fossae) Fothergi l l 's operat ion noun surgical operation to correct prolapse of the womb

139 frenulum fugax frenulum o r frenum n o u n fold of mucous membrane (under the tongue or by the clitoris) fresh adjective (a) not used or not dirty; I ' l l get some fresh towels; she put some fresh sheets on the bed; fresh air = open air; they came out of the m i n e i n t o the fresh a i r (b) recently made; fresh bread; fresh frozen plasma = plasma made from freshly donated blood, and kept frozen (c) not tinned or frozen;

fresh fish; fresh fruit salad; fresh vegetables a r e expensive i n w i n t e r fretful adjective (baby) which cries or cannot sleep or seems unhappy friar's balsam n o u n mixture of various plant oils, including benzoin and balsam, which can be inhaled as a vapour to relieve bronchitis or congestion friction n o u n rubbing together of two surfaces; friction fremitus = scratching felt when the hand is placed on the chest of a patient suffering from pericarditis; friction murmur = scratching sound around the heart, heard with a stethoscope in patients suffering from pericarditis Friedländer's bacillus n o u n bacterium K l e b s i e l l a p n e u m o n i a e which can cause pneumonia Friedman's test n o u n test for pregnancy Friedreich's ataxia n o u n inherited nervous disease which affects the spinal cord (ataxia is associated with club foot, and makes the patient walk unsteadily and speak with difficulty) fr ighten verb to make someone afraid; the noise f r i g h t e n e d me; she watched a

f r i g h t e n i n g film about insects w h i c h eat people • frightened adjective afraid; I ' m

f r i g h t e n e d of spiders; don't leave the p a t i e n t a l o n e - she's f r i g h t e n e d of the d a r k frigid adjective (woman) who cannot experience orgasm or sexual pleasure • frigidity n o u n being unable to experience orgasm or sexual pleasure or who does not feel sexual desire fr inge medic ine n o u n types of medicine which are not part of normal treatment taught in medical schools (such as homeopathy, acupuncture, etc.) f rog n o u n small animal with no tail, which lives in water or on land and can jump; frog plaster = plaster cast made to keep the legs in a correct position after an operation to correct a dislocated hip Fröhlich's s y n d r o m e or dyst roph ia adiposogeni ta l is n o u n condition where the patient becomes obese and the genital

system does not develop, caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland front n o u n part of something which faces forwards; the front of the hospital faces south; he spilt soup down the front of his s h i r t the Adam's apple is visible i n the front of the neck • frontal adjective referring to the forehead

or to the front of the head; frontal bone = bone forming the front of the upper part of the skull behind the forehead � i l l u s t r a t i o n SKULL; frontal lobe = front lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; frontal lobotomy = surgical operation on the brain to treat mental illness by removing part of the frontal lobe; frontal sinus = one of two sinuses in the front of the face above the eyes and near the nose (NOTE: the opposite is occipital)

frost n o u n freezing weather when the temperature is below the freezing point of water. (It may lead to a deposit of crystals of ice on surfaces); t h e r e was a frost last n i g h t • frostbite n o u n injury caused by very severe cold which freezes tissue • frostbitten adjective suffering from frostbite

COMMENT: in very cold conditions, the outside tissue of the fingers, toes, ears and nose can freeze, becoming white and numb. Thawing of frostbitten tissue can be very painful and must be done very slowly. Severe cases of frostbite may require amputation because the tissue has died and gangrene has set in

f rozen Shoulder n o u n stiffness and pain in the shoulder, caused by inflammation of the membranes of the shoulder joint after injury or after the shoulder has been immobile for a time, when deposits may be forming in the tendons f ruc tose n o u n fruit sugar found in honey and some fruit, which together with glucose forms sucrose • fructOSUria n o u n presence of fructose in the urine fruit n o u n usually sweet part of a plant which contains the seeds, and is eaten as food; a diet of fresh fruit a n d vegetables (NOTE: no plural when referring to the food: you should eat a lot of fruit)

COMMENT: fruit contains fructose and is a good source of vitamin C and some dietary fibre. Dried fruit have a higher sugar content but less vitamin C than fresh fruit


fugue noun condition where the patient loses his memory and leaves home

fulguration or electrodesiccation noun removal of a growth (such as a wart) by burning with an electric needle

full adjective complete or with no empty space; the hospital cannot take i n any more patients - a l l the wards a r e f u l l ; my appointments book is f u l l for the next two weeks • full-scale adjective complete or going into

all details; the doctors put h i m through a full-scale medical e x a m i n a t i o n ; the local health authority has ordered a full-scale i n q u i r y into the case • full term noun complete pregnancy of forty weeks; she has had several pregnancies but none has reached f u l l term • fully adverb completely; the fetus was not

f u l l y developed; is the muscle f u l l y relaxed?