Although pollution of land and water sometimes creates severe problems for agriculture, they are mostly local in their effect. Overall, the impacts are not as great as those from air pollution nor do they pose the same kind of growing, worldwide threat. In this chapter we examine, first, two aspects of land pollution - the effects of heavy metals and other elements on crops and livestock, and the special hazards created by the practice of applying sewage sludge to agricultural land. In the second part, we discuss the variety of pollutants contained in rivers, aquifers and other watercourses that are sources of agricultural water.