This section begins with an introduction to action research because it should be the basis of all initiatives: whether they be the planning, design, construction, management, or monitoring of environments or public awareness and political action projects. This book does not concentrate on all of the specific environmental actions children can do, for there are dozens of useful guides available.1 Beginning in this way will guarantee that children's actions grow out of their concerns and those of their communities rather than from some external agenda. Also fundamental to the action-research process are the means for children to look critically at themselves in any project through the incorporation of methods for monitoring the achievement of the project's goals, including the process of achieving them.2 For these reasons, Chapter 5 should be seen as introductory to the other chapters of this section of the book.