In Europe and North America the dominant mode of involvement for children in environmental issues is through national or international programmes exhorting them to ‘save the whales’ or change household consumption or recycle. I have argued that this type of massive top-down effort will not alone bring about the kind of radical reorientation of people to their own communities that is necessary for sustainable development. These large-scale programmes do sometimes help children see the connection between their small actions and global issues, but they commonly lack a critical thinking component. Whatever the merits of large-scale mobilization efforts, they do not allow for the emphasis described in this book on children as the primary constructors of their knowledge through their own research, reflection, and action. In their devotion to a single cause they are necessary top-down projects. A major challenge is for us to find ways for children to engage in locally defined research and action while also being part of global efforts.