It is becoming increasingly evident that modernization is leading to changing patterns of health. While there have been many improvements in general population health, new health problems have developed. Some are related to the adverse consequences of industrialization, such as environmental contamination, some are related to inadequate health care, and some are related to social change and the development of unhealthy lifestyles. Certain patterns of health tend to be conSistently associated with certain patterns of political and economic development. In particular, there is a tendency for health and. living standards to be lower among those groups that have been marginalized by the process of 'globalization'; that is, various processes that undermine local autonomy, such as international flows of capital and investments, and the promotion of Western values and lifestyles through global media transmissions. States and individuals have become interconnected under the general rubric of 'globalization'. Many communities have adopted the capitalist model of development and patterns of consumption, even though they have maintained distinctive cultures and characteristics. Not all, however, have benefited equally from this process. For many people advances in areas such as medical science and telecommunications have brought undoubted benefits, but many others have been denied such benefits.