Bioclimatic Planning of Outdoor Spaces
DOI link for Bioclimatic Planning of Outdoor Spaces
Bioclimatic Planning of Outdoor Spaces book
Air pollution reduces the transmissivity of the urban atmosphere. Part of the solar radiation directed toward the city is retained by the pollution dome over it. As a result the amount of solar radiation reaching an urban surface is less than that falling on an equivalent surface outside the city. Compared to open country, built urban sites have a larger area of exposed surfaces per unit area of ground covered. The albedo of surfaces is the next important factor for consideration. This determines the absorption of solar radiation and thus the resulting rise in surface temperatures, which in turn influence the temperature of adjacent air layers. In central urban areas most ground finishes and other surfaces are of low albedo leading to high absorption of solar radiation. The built density and energy intensity of cities created changes in urban microclimates which have far reaching implications for urban design, as well as for the environmental sustainability of cities.