IOC meta-structures are the market, the interorganizational network, and the mandated framework. 1 We all know what markets are, and they have been rigorously defined. The network is something between markets and hierarchies, and may combine elements of both (exchange based on price, and actions based on command) with more informal transactions premised on mutual trust. The mandated framework is a structure for IOC that is based on authority. This may be political-societal authority premised on decisions that are recognized as legitimate, expressed as legislation, regulations, or public resource allocation. Or the authority may be legal-contractual, as a result of firms' or organizations' voluntary delegation of some of their autonomy in previous contracts or agreements.