Where does coordination between organizations emerge and how does it play itself out? There are different ways of describing the IOC context. First, we can focus on the meaning of between: how do we define and describe the relational network of organizations which is the locus of IOC. There are some models which are independent of the existence or nature of IOC. Others, which come under the heading of "interorganizational fields", do relate to IOC's presence or absence, and its type.