Over twenty five years ago Littwak and Meyer (1966: 39-42) referred to "mechanisms of coordination" in a study of community social service organizations. Brickman, analyzing the coordination of national research and development policy, called them "coordination formats" (1979: 73-77). Grandori, in her overview of organization theory and organizational structures, identifies "coordination-systems" or "-schemes" (1987: 26-27). But, in the observation and analysis of IOC over the period covered here, these references have been few and far between.