This book deals with the most tragic period in the history of Soviet Jews, that of the Second World War, the Holocaust and postwar Stalinism. 1 The existence of a single Soviet Jewish institution, the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAFC), spanned most of those years. Since the JAFC was the the only central Jewish structure in Soviet Russia, it was inexorably connected to the fate of Soviet Jewry. The situation of Soviet Jews during that time could be examined, to a considerable extent, through the prism of this Committee.