The involvement of the JAFC in the Palestinian issue and its response to the establishment of Israel was an extremely complex matter. As an instrument of Soviet propaganda, used primarily to shape Jewish attitudes in the West, the Committee highlighted Russia’s support for the partition of Palestine and the establishment of a Jewish state. At the same time, it had to be very careful in the way it handled responses and reactions of Soviet Jews. National identity had increased among them in the wake of the war and the Holocaust. It peaked in the years 1947–1948, prior to, and immediately after, the establishment of the State of Israel. New documents from the JAFC archive provide concrete evidence for the “euphoria of 1948,” which had previously been mentioned primarily in memoirs and personal testimonies. 1