In this chapter, the author argues that although it may seem far-fetched to accuse Orthodoxy of being the ultimate cause of all of Russia's misfortunes, this conception does help us to understand several facts. One of the facts includes that the boundaries between the suppression of instrumental music in Russia and the beginning of its development were exactly the same as those between pre-Petrine and Petrine Russias. The musical culture of Ancient Rus' developed in the three directions usual for most European countries: folklore, church music, and urban entertainment performed by minstrels generally known as skomorokhi. In 1648, the year of the skomorokhi suppression, G. Frescobaldi died, leaving behind a sophisticated organ legacy. Early folklore originated in pagan rites. The texts of Russian byliny usually mention a repertoire performed by skomorokhi and grand-ducal singers – bayans – active at the banquets of Kievan dukes between the tenth and twelfth centuries.