This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores an ‘authoritative’ approach to promoting positive behavior. It introduces Diana Baumrind’s concept of authoritative parenting which has in recent years been translated into the concept of authoritative teaching. The book also explores critiques of behaviourist theory, since many guidelines for educators that use this conceptual lens fail to declare their theoretical foundations, and so often disguise their limitations. It further explores how simple biological considerations such as hunger or tiredness can impact on children’s behaviour, and identifies simple interventions based on this knowledge that can prevent episodes of negative behaviour from occurring. The book interrogates the influence of culture on behaviour, and on perceptions of that behaviour. It explains key points of learning are identified to support children’s positive behaviour.