THE primary fact in British public finance is the supremacy of Parliament, and in particular the House of Commons. Every penny collected in taxes or spent by the central government must have been first authorized by Parliament. In addition to legislating, the Commons exercise the right to criticize the Executive while it is carrying out the financial duties entrusted to it, and finally to sit in judgment when these duties are completed. The permanent staff is headed by the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, who is at the same time the chief of the whole Civil Service, and is its connecting link with the Cabinet on general Civil Service questions. Under him are three Treasury departments, dealing with finance, supply services, and Civil Service establishments. The Finance Bill also provides the Executive with an opportunity, by inserting suitable clauses, to strengthen the administrative machinery for revenue collection.