DOI link for The Ottomans
The Ottomans book
The catastrophic events that befell the Ottomans at the end of Sultan Mahmud's life set the stage for an even more intensive program of modernization. In 1839, Ibrahim Pasha's Egyptian army inflicted a crushing defeat on the reformed army of the Ottomans in Anatolia, leaving the road to Istanbul open. Translated and enacted into Ottoman law practically overnight, and without much tailoring to fit Ottoman contours, whole codes were imported and transplanted like so many tulip bulbs. The most well-known of the Young Ottomans, Namik Kemal, was another of those constitutionalist pamphleteers who started his career in that breeding ground of reformism, the Translation Bureau. The cost of defense was the straw that broke the back of Ottoman finances. The prince of the Ottoman family who succeeded him had been using words such as liberty, fatherland, constitution, representative assembly, icons of Young Ottoman neologisms, which raised liberal hopes when he became sultan.