ABSTRACT

The Circular Economy (CE) is an alternative industrial model where, by taking a holistic and systemic approach, industrial processes are not seen as the inevitable cause of natural resource exploitation, environmental pollution, and waste generation, but rather, as a means to contribute to sustainable development. Arguably, behind the rapid emergence of CE stands a favourable alignment of global technological, regulatory, and social factors that have together contributed to make the CE proposition attractive, feasible, and, in most instances, highly lucrative. The aim of a CE is to enable human society transition towards a system of production and consumption that minimizes environmental externalities, thus preserving or re-establishing planetary boundaries. Accordingly, the formers are usually called “biosphere products”, while the latter are defined as “technosphere products”. Technosphere Products are those that cannot re-enter the biosphere due to their toxicity for the environment.