The final chapter summarises the current state of transboundary water interactions in the Ganges–Brahmaputra problemshed. There are numerous challenges – environmental vulnerability, rapid population growth, poverty – and issues on the transboundary water governance agenda – hydropower development, water for irrigation, flood control. Yet interactions between India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are strained and there is little political will to address these issues. Instead, the World Bank and other international actors are leading initiatives to increase transboundary water cooperation. This chapter draws out conclusions about the role of international actors in addressing water governance issues in developing countries.