This chapter outlines the main issues on the water governance agenda in the Ganges–Brahmaputra problemshed. These include upstream water storage, hydropower generation, irrigation, flooding and sedimentation. These are the most important and controversial issues between the riparian states, as well as the issues receiving the most attention from international actors involved in water governance here. Each is discussed in turn, first from the perspective of stakeholders within the problemshed, then from the perspective of the World Bank. There are discrepancies between these two viewpoints about the potential for developing the region’s freshwater resources.