This chapter examines the normative claims made by international actors in regard to water governance in the Ganges–Brahmaputra problemshed. It discusses the ways in which global water governance paradigms and practices have changed in recent decades. There has been a growing emphasis on ‘good governance’ and water justice. At the same time, a tension exists between the long-established ‘command and control’ approach to environmental resource management versus ecological principles. This chapter also discusses the emergence of non-traditional security threats, especially climate change. Water security is an increasingly important concern for international development, as are sustainable development and poverty eradication.