The Theme Paper is an important document that outlines of the Indian caste system, from the point of view of Dalits, egalitarian anti-caste movements through the history of India, the evolution of the principle of equality before law and constitutional provisions for empowerment of Dalits and establishment of a regime of equality in the country, and offers a critical appraisal of the governmental schemes for their empowerment, details the continuing deprivations and disadvantages of the Dalits and, finally, lays down a road map of clear-cut action programmes for resolving their existential problems and for bringing about their empowerment and thereby strengthening the nation. The extremely valuable contribution of this chapter is that it provides an insurgent administrator’s programschrift for the annihilation of caste in contemporary India, through a close look at policy, administrative law and possibilities for future action.