Human resource management (HRM) is a relatively young discipline and is a particular approach to employment management aimed at securing competitive advantage for the organization. The integration of ecological sustainability with strategic HRM marks a recent but important shift in how many HR professionals see their role. Sustainable HRM and human resource development (HRD) will focus on social, environmental, and financial outcomes and are emerging as integral parts of many businesses’ HRM strategy. The social ecology of the organization comprises the organizational environment itself including such things as leadership, culture, business strategy, work systems and processes, reporting mechanisms, and the whole set of more conventional HRM and HRD policy and implementation functions. HRM departments tend to focus on the needs and goals of the organization, whereas the individual employee often wishes to orientate her future learning to this organization goal but will also want to plan her own personal career journey.