Turkey and the United States have a long history of security cooperation. Beginning in 1947, the United States provided foreign aid to Turkey. Additional assistance was given through the Marshall Plan, which included the transfer of weapons. More than five thousand Turkish troops fought side by side with US forces in Korea. Turks were distinguished for their bravery and sacrifice: 741 Turkish troops were killed and 2,742 wounded in the Korean conflict. In accordance with the Truman Doctrine, Turkey was viewed as indispensable to containing the Soviet Union. Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952. It played a critical role as the eastern flank of NATO, serving as a staging ground for intermediate-range Jupiter missiles pointed at the Soviet Union.