In 1937, when the Japanese invasion threatened the provinces in east China, Xia Bengying was a young woman, aged 23, living in Liu’an, a peaceful small town in Anhui Province historically famous for its production of tea. Her quiet life was soon disrupted. Responding to the nationwide mobilisation for the War of Resistance, she joined the local Women’s Resistance Society and Liu’an Popular Mobilisation Committee. As a whole new life unfolded during the ten-month defence of Greater Wuhan, Xia Bengying grew to be an active women’s leader, initiating and participating in a variety of organisations for resistance and war relief. Adopting the political language of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Xia Bengying henceforth produced a memoir of the war that is indicative of not only Chinese women’s political activism and war effort, but also their increasing political identification with the CCP. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.