This chapter illustrates the distinction between knowing, the process and knowledge, the thing known, using the example of Inuit observations and understandings of climate change. Climate change is an excellent way to explore the distinction because there is no pre-knowledge of it; indigenous experts do not know what to expect, the outcome of change. The chapter deals with issues in research methodology. The study of indigenous ways of knowing requires the development of new models of community-based research to understand the dynamics of knowledge construction. Participatory methods help communities increase their own understanding through research, reflection and applied learning. Place-based models are needed because understanding the dynamic interaction between nature and society requires case studies situated in particular places and cultures. The chapter presents the findings of such collaborative research might look like, and illustrates what indigenous experts are able to deduce from their observations.