In one field the Bolshevists have known how to get quite a good reputation in the West, of which they are, in spite of their hatred and contempt for the bourgeois world, not a little proud, and this field is that of culture. The Bolshevists, of course, have not won their fame as the friends of culture for nothing. Partly, the fact is seen against the background of that opinion of the Bolshevists which became prevalent in the West during the first months of the revolution. Bolshevism, in its endeavour to increase national education in general, has achieved much the same result as in the question of illiteracy. In the field of higher education, the work of destruction has been almost still more complete. The Russian public school, from an educational no less than from a political point of view, invited still more radical interference than the lower grade school, and the results of this interference have been terrific.