Chapter 11 provides brief summaries of four past evacuation planning experiences and their outcomes. The first three case studies focus on larger-scale events that also provide longer periods of forewarning. The fourth case study addresses the more common small-scale, no-notice events, which tend to occur in unpredictable locations with little warning and, as such, require a significant amount of improvisation. The first two case studies examine actual evacuations, the first of which is about the largest and most commonly discussed (at least in the United States) environmental hazard—hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina. The second case study examines a wildland-urban interface fire in southern California. The third and fourth case studies are somewhat different in focusing on planning for future evacuations from hazardous materials rather than assessing past evacuations.