The Chronicle of the Catholic Sovereigns by their secretary, Hernando del Pulgar, is the last of a series, and bears traces of the transition stage between chronicle and history. Geronimo de Zurita’s work marks a new epoch in the writing of history; painstaking and exact in the extreme, he cannot rest satisfied with mere tradition. Juan de Mariana’s history of Spain was published in Latin at the end of the sixteenth century, but in 1609 he brought out a translation with many additions and corrections. Mariana has a wonderful gift of transferring himself in imagination to the times of which he wrote, and of realising the motives and views of contending parties. In connection with the early history of America books must be mentioned, as much on account of their intrinsic literary value as on account of their connection with the names of famous men of action.