This chapter analyses the relationship to his work of primitive man and continue with a brief survey of the history of men at work. It examines a wide range of data from studies of contemporary life in order to create a frame of reference against which the findings of the present study can be interpreted. The chapter continues these trains of thought and develops recommendations for industry in particular and for society in general. Much romantic nonsense has been written about primitive man. The important difference between primitive man and modern man at his best is in the time scale of activities and in the potentiality for individual growth. In primitive societies the major source of energy is the contraction of muscles, human or animal. As these societies coalesced into the great classical civilizations, the sources of energy remained the same; the role of the individual changed greatly.