Amongst the many kinds of degradation which the fanatics of Arab tribal pride inflicted on mawall may be mentioned the form of address. They should not be addressed with a kunya, but only by their personal name (ism) or by a family or trade name (laqab). This seems never to have been carried out, since at all times we find mawall names in the form of a proper kunya. The restriction is, however, characteristic at least as a theoretical expression of racial fanaticism. The Arabs in various periods held the address by the kunya to be a sign of friendship and respect. Distinguished magnates amongst the ancient Arabs had several kunyas as sign of their higher dignity. Notable is the fact that warriors used different kunya in war and peace; of this there are several examples in al-Jahiz, Ba yan. It is not impossible that the same person may use different kunyas in different countries.