The nationalism which swept like a tidal wave in the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century from western Europe over central and into eastern Europe was associated and tinctured with the romantic liberalism of the era. Modern nationalism had arisen in a preponderantly agricultural and commercial society. In the last third of the century, however, the development of technology and large-scale machine industry—"Industrial Revolution"—was transforming the traditional pattern of European society and laying foundation for a more rampant nationalism. In fine, the Industrial Revolution served in many ways to spread and intensify nationalism. It increased the wealth and power of national states in Europe and America where it began and chiefly developed. Democracy was a goal of revolutionary movements, between 1904 and 1912, in the Russian and Ottoman Empires, in Persia, Portugal, Mexico, and Chinese Empire. By 1914, every country, in measure as it had undergone industrialization, possessed a system of elementary and secondary schools and a generally literate population.