At the very time, from the 1870's to World War I, when nationalism was being intensified by industrialization and was becoming a truly mass movement in Europe and America, there was an extraordinary outburst of national imperialism. Imperialistic revival and expansion began in a big way in 1874 with the advent of Disraeli's Conservative ministry in Great Britain. National imperialism was likewise defended as a humanitarian movement in behalf of higher civilization. Contemporary with the new national imperialism was a manifold display of nationalist intolerance. Back of this was the drive of heated patriots for national strength and power, and their conviction that tolerance of dissent and division within a nation would gravely weaken it. Nationalist intolerance in the era after 1870 was not only religious but racial. Racialism gave new vigor and direction to anti-Jewish prejudice. Dislike of Jews and discrimination against them had long existed.