Historically the major causes of service refusal have been the risk of robbery, racial discrimination against ghetto residents, the economic factor of discrimination and the competitive warfare with the gypsy cab. The presence of the gypsy cab on the streets of New York is just another example of the failure of the taxi industry to properly serve the public. The advent of the gypsy cab and private livery vehicle has caused severe problems for the medallioned taxi industry. The gypsy cab has not only begun to serve outer borough residents more adequately than the medallioned cab, it has deterred taxi drivers from serving the black community. Cab drivers are often intimidated and driven off the road through a show of force from the private livery or gypsy cab operators. It is not at all uncommon for a gypsy cab driver to cut off a medallion taxi from a prospective passenger and snatch that passenger up himself.