The citizen in the age of feudalism needing redress of a grievance which normal channels did not meet had a final resort. He could approach the sovereign king and appeal to his conscience with the strange cry of "Haro!" 1 Just so, the sovereign American public in our age has been confronted by its black members crying out "Haro!" in an appeal to the national conscience to narrow the gap between its ideals and its practices. But more than shouting, there has been a major effort by Negroes and white supporters to redress grievances left untouched since the first Reconstruction. The instrument sought was national law, issuing from Supreme Court, Congress, and Presidency, designed to change behavior traditionally unchecked by law or conscience.