This chapter is an examination of how the federal government after 1957 mobilized its resources to attack voting discrimination and intimidation. As we shall see, despite larger national effort with the 1960 law, relatively little gain was made in the face of an implacable opponent and an inadequate legal instrument. The 1965 Act, however, produced dramatic gains by changing the enforcement method. Much of this is seen in Panola County's record of enforcement of voting rights laws.