The abundance of federal support in the postwar research economy clearly redounded to the advantage of those universities with substantial research capacity already in place. UCLA is the youngest of the leading research universities. Its predecessor was merely a normal school when adopted by the Regents of the University of California in 1919. It was elevated to the status of a college in 1923, receiving authorization to offer a four-year course in arts and science. Stanford's advancement by 1969 was most apparent in the largest and most competitive disciplines: English advanced from 15 to 6; history from 15 to 5; psychology from 5 to 1; and chemistry from 15 to 3. Each university made a commitment to academic advancement that was unusually strong for the mid-fifties. These actions reflected a larger shift of sentiments across universities which preceded decisive changes in the research economy.