This chapter traces the rapprochement between universities and industry from its beginnings in the seventies through its efflorescence in the 1980s. The mid-seventies was a time for taking stock in higher education—for attempting to come to terms with the tangible and intangible factors causing the pervasive malaise. The University of Arizona in some ways might stand for many state institutions that slowly were transformed into research universities. Certainly compared with the post-Sputnik era, when the only client was the federal government and a narrow conception of academic prestige predominated, the stagnant seventies and the new era of the 1980s provided more incentive and more scope for such institutional initiatives. When Bruce L. R. Smith and Joseph J. Karlesky wrote in the mid-seventies, the beginnings of closer relations between industry and university research were just becoming apparent.