ABSTRACT

Social democracy therefore legitimized social interaction as a mode of decision-making in politics. Politics becomes part of planning. Political choice is never purely a matter of being for this program or against that policy. Political options must always be understood to include some commitment to the decision-making process itself and to the value of agreement. All politicians and political institutions are considered, Martin Landau said, risky actors. The political equivalent of original sin is that men and the institutions they create are fallible if not fallacious and error-prone if not erroneous. Politics does not consider preferences to be finally formed but to be undergoing continual reformulation. Both politics and planning, at least in their modern manifestations, claim as their territory the general welfare of citizens. When planning is infused with politics, however, social forces guide intelligence. Studies of political feasibility may help with the allocation of analytic time: which programs are most worth pursuing because change is possible.