This chapter contradicts the progressive view in a direct fashion: if human nature is permanent, has in effect an "essence," then progress based on the elimination of certain characteristics involving gender, social hierarchy, or aggressiveness cannot take place beyond a certain point or, if so, only at an immense social cost. Finally, prominent philosophers who currently concern themselves with social ideals no longer directly depend on the social sciences to lead them. Instead, they prefer to refer their thought to ancient and medieval models, especially Aristotle's philosophy, which to them seems more comprehensive and frankly realistic; sociological theories and psychological models are seemingly of not much use to understand and prescribe social ethics for human society. Ethical theory has immediate application on a social level since it most often describes standards to judge how people relate to one another in a family or in society at large.