The occupational hierarchy within the Hasidic community is clearly defined. The close connection between religious and occupational status is indicated in the following ranking of occupations in descending order: rebbishe Gesheften, religious professional service, secular professional service, manufacture and sale of religious articles, manufacture and sale of Hasidic foodstuffs, manufacture and sale of nonreligious articles, and other nonprofessional occupations. Class stratification in the Hasidic community is based primarily upon the frequency and intensity of religious observance. This holds true for economic activities as well. The category of Religious Professional Service includes all occupations that require religious training and for which Talmudical knowledge and familiarity with religious laws is demanded. It includes the following occupations: shohet, shamash, melamed, hazan, baal tefilah, mohel, mashgiach, sofer, metarem, batlan, and miscellaneous religious practitioner. The category of secular professional service includes all professions requiring secular academic training outside of the Hasidic community.